Till 70th years of the twentieth century northern areas, area Terneisky of Primorye Territory, on archeologic cards appeared as the ground of the unknown person. Only in 1975 complex studying this territory which has allowed to dispell doubts about time of the first settlements for territories of area Terneyski has begun.
From lakes Duhovskih up to the river Samarga ancient settlements settled down. The earliest settlement is found in area Dzhigitivka river also concerns, apparently, to an epoch mezolit (8-10 thousand years ago). Inhabitants it yet did not know ceramics, used silicon knifes. The complex of occurring at different times parking of stone, bronze, iron centuries, is found out in area of lake Fertile . Inhabitants neolit settlement which age nearby 5 thousand years, were able to produce the excellent ceramics covered by a red paint, used ornaments of their greenstone, perfectly knew properties of a stone, manufacturing from it tips of arrows, knifes.
Not less recovered in an antiquity was item Terney . Here continuously there lived hunters of the Stone Age (area Shvyrka, (the airport)), fishermen of the Iron Age (area of item Pioneer), soldiers-cattlemen of the state Bohai and Gold empire Churchzhen - ancestors of modern nanaians, Ulichies , Udegeis , Orochies .
The rests of a fortress C hurchzhen were kept near to Terney . Fortifications have been made in the form of a spiral that in case of an attack of the enemy, defenders of a fortress started up downwards on a spiral huge stones which have swept away all on the way.
Bay Terney has been opened more 200 years ago. On July, 5-6th, 1787 well-known French seafarer Jean Francois Laperuz on sailing vessels "Surveying compass" and "Astrolabe". Frequent dense fogs did not allow frigates to approach close to coast. At last weather began to favour to travellers, and Laperuz has directed the ships to an extensive gulf. It has named this gulf Terney .
Hardly anchors have concerned a bottom of gulf Terney , seamen have pulled out fishing tackles and in some minutes have caught dozen large cods, than have been pleasantly amazed. Laperuz has there and then allowed a command " to close access to corned beef " and to pass to a feed by a fresh fish.
" Each of five bays , - wrote Laperuz , - took a convenient place fishing fishes a seine and streams, in mouthes which the Frenchmen have arranged kitchens. To a fish was to make one jump of the sea enough to appear in a sailor's kettle. We caught a cod, a trout, a herring, a flounder, salmons... "
The nature on coast of gulf Terney has caused at Laperuz and its satellites admiration: even the finest spring in France could not be compared to such juicy tones of greens what they have seen here.
" Tops of mountains, - described Laperuz , - covered a pine wood. Below dews an oak forest , and as approaching the sea trees became more thin and below. On coast of streams willows, birches, maples, on wood marges - a hazel grove grew, apple-trees and a hawthorn " blossomed.
On coast of gulf Terney the Frenchmen have not met any alive soul though have continually come across traces of ability to live of the person: the trees which have been cut down by sharp tools; the rests fires , the scattered tents from branches...
Travellers have drawn a conclusion, that tatars come to seacoast to a season of hunting and fishing. Basically natives live in depth of continent. For certain local residents observed of newcomers, nothing giving out to the presence.
Still they have found a tomb in which it has been buried two persons. On heads at them were c aps from a taffeta. Bodies are wrapped up in the bear skins, belts are dressed from a leather, and coins are attached to them, and also ornaments from copper Chinese (so, anyway, approves Laperuz )... In a tomb the iron axe and a knife, the wooden spoon, a hairbrush, a small bag from Nanki , filled by fig. Having taken a part of subjects, as samples of a life of local residents laid, travellers have put into a tomb the order.
In the morning on July, 9th, 1787 the Frenchmen, having buried on coast of one of bays of gulf Terney a vessel with metal plates with the names of the ships engraved on them, date of parking, have lifted sails, and send away aside Sakhalin.
As up to us send in addition these data
During parking in Petropavlovsk Laperuz has transferred the travelling diary and a part of the collected collections certain Bartolameo Lesseps - to the participant of expedition, the son of the French consul in Petersburg , and ordered to reach to it a land Paris . Way Lesseps is long and was difficult, but it has safely reached the native land. Owing to Lesseps and to diary Laperuz which it has kept, the world has learned about navigation of "Surveying compass" and "Astrolabe", opening of expedition, names with which has christened Laperuz anonymous bays including bay Terney . In fact ships Laperuz have not returned to France . Лессепс - unique from participants of expedition to which could survive.
To us, people living in Terney, Laperuz and its comrades on last travel, victims in Pacific ocean from " love to sciences ", are close, as the "pioneers" who have stepped into our coast. And in Terney , in 1997, in a court yard of high school have put a small monument in memory of expedition Laperuz .
Whence there was name Terney , people living in Terney have learned more recently. Legends about it went much. Spoke, that Terney - the name Chinese. Then spoke, that orochi and that in translation " the valley of death " means. More exact version at last connected with Laperuz, later was born. Jacobs with it lieutenant Terney floated, it has died, and it have buried somewhere on coast of a gulf which have named in memory died.
E.N.Suvorov ( Evgenie Suvorov's clause " the Riddle of bay Terney "), searching for the present site of gulf Terney , has solved also other problem: why Laperuz has named a bay name Terney . It has familiarized with the book de Langelia " Tragical travel... " Also has learned, that de Terney was first instructor Laperuza.
Flying the flag de Terney it has passed naval school from the naval cadet up to the lieutenant. Becoming admiral, the descendant of knights, shevale Charles de Arsak de Terney, has glorified a patrimonial name large victories of the French fleet.
Here in honour of the teacher also has named Laperuz the gulf opened by it. Today name Terney remains only in a name of settlement.
Later 87 years after Laperuz to coast already Tatar strait expedition under command Loggin Aleksandrovich Bolshev has been directed. This expedition has closed the last "a white spot" on a card of northeast coast of sea of Japan . Topographers were guided on the cards created, not without mistakes, the West-European experts.
In the most difficult conditions, suffering of deprivations of a unpredictable camp life, frequently starving because of poor state provisions and not having time to extract its gun on a land and a hook on water, topographers have finished shooting coast during 1096 versts and where it was possible, up to 16 versts deep into continent.
Leasers have described 500 rivers, including large bottom inflows, have found display of such minerals as gold, lead, silver, iron, copper, coal.
One of the major results of expedition - found out on valleys of the rivers of settlement of natives. Topographers have met time and constant settlements, mostly, удэгейцев , in smaller - Chineses- отходников . Researchers have collected a rich material on culture, a life, customs of local residents. The topographer second lieutenant A.P.Egor was the first "civilized" person who visited and has described a lower reaches of the river Sanhobe (nowadays Серебрянки ) where the settlement Terney subsequently has grown. It the first has passed and has plotted a coastal site between gulfs Тавайза (m. Russian) and Пластун with lakes Duhovskimi. Data of expedition of L.A.Bolsheva used in Russia more than 30 years while them thoroughly have not updated and have not added V.K.Arsenyev and other researchers. Names of participants of expedition in area Terneyski name hills, the rivers, capes. In 1999 in a park zone of item Terney the monument to Russian trailblazers is built.
That represented Terney in the beginning of 20-th century, it is possible to learn from V.K.Arsenyev's diaries. This great traveller proceeded up and down all Primorye Territory . It has written two books about the travel. Later its travelling diaries have been printed.
Its first expedition on east slopes Sikhote-Alin took place in 1906 and last half a year. Conducted group golied Dersu Uzala . The way of group to Terney laid through Plastun , the Dzhigit, Fertile. In Plastun travellers have come across a greater gang Chinese Khunhuzes . Business could terminate poorly, if not Dersu Uzala . Being shot, it has withdrawn Khunhuzes in other party.
On the river Jodzyhe (Dzhigitovka ) Arsenyev's group has met group of hunters about which the Chinese foreman Chzhan-Bao lived in Terney ordered. It searched Khunhuzes , come in Plastun to plunder barges. Arsenyev very validly responded Chzhan- Bao in the diaries. Here so it describes it: " To me good nature, energy, judiciousness, persistence and talents of the diplomat was not necessary to meet the person in whom so would be combined gravity. Its mind, vanity and skill to subordinate spoke crowd to itself for that, it was not the simple Chinese. Most likely, it was one of the political criminals run from China . In all area Chzhan-Bao was considered as the most authoritative person. Both Chineses, and basins addressed to it for advice. It often interceded for offended and consequently it had many secret enemies. Especially it was irreconcilable to Khunhuzes , the prosecutions it has guided at them so much fear, that they further the river Jodzyhe ( Джигитовка ) to come were not solved. Its headquarters was in Terney . And from all coast, southern and northern, in this "apartment" the information was flown down, and Chzhan- Bao was well informed about all events. First "mayor" Terney was such.
Dersu Uzala conducted group a track on which the road on Terney is nowadays located. In Ternee Arsenyev has lived days 20, and it lived in one of fanzes so-called Chinese settlement. The settlement totaled 38 fanz in which lived 233 persons. In other settlement, which settled down further from the sea (approximately Oaklets area), there lived basins. Fans of Tazes was 14, in them 72 men, 54 women, 89 children were totaled.
Arsenyev writes: " Position of local basins rather heavy. They have absolutely hammered and oppress ive a kind. I became, was them to ask, but they were frightened of something, whispering among themselves and under any pretext have left. Obviously, they were afraid of Chineses. If someone from them will dare to complain to Russian authorities or to tell that occurs in valley Sankhobe . (nowadays Serebryanka river in item Terney ), that is waited with awful punishment: will drown in the river or will dig alive in the ground ".
In the records it also informs, that about 30 years ago the smallpox which has devastated of Tazes settlement here raged. Chineses dragged out corpses with hook from fanzes and burnt on fires. And, it is frequent together with dead patients were burnt also. Basins spoke on-chinas, to grow up bread, put on equally, skilfully owned knifes. On Arsenyev's supervision, Chineses were not very tender to Russian, looked at them as on newcomers.
Next year Arsenyev has organized one more expedition to this area, in Terney it has stayed only three days.
The area Terneyski began to be occupied in the end of 19 centuries. Basically it there were unbearable exiled run from Sakhalin and the Old Believers not concordant with creed of church. Active settling has begun in 1906-1907, after the termination of the русско -Japanese war. The first were three soldier, gunners, all from one battery. Before the русско -Japanese war lived near Nizhni Novgorod, on the grounds of the landowner, the imperial "black" admiral Rozhestvenskogo who has lost Tsusimskoe battle. Bombardir Yeliseyev, rideable Darnikov and Andronov. In Vladivostok, the agent on resettlement has assured them, that if they will winter and will remain in bay Terney on a residence everyone will receive on acquisition on 50 one rubles for now at departure to them have given out the same sum, but in kind - 2 horses, 2 cows, 3 pigs, 6 hens and one cock, 3 guns, and the rest from the sum is ostensibly paid by advance payment for a barge. Who knows, there was their life, do not meet they the family which has come on winter fishing orochies . Between them the friendship was fastened, as has helped them to winter. Next year they have transported in Terney the numerous families.
Immigrants with great work and tortures continued to arrive in Terney . There came basically landless, large-family peasants from the central areas of Russia . Went from need, from gloomy farm work, famine. Resettlement on edge of light was for them small hope for the best share, on the Native land. The will, the untouched, free ground pulled muzhiks in this backwoods. Reached from Vladivostok rare irregular flights of steamships, and more fishing barges which went up to Terney one and a half-two month. Under stories of old residents, anybody from immigrants has not returned back home, they strongly started up roots on a new place, gave birth to children, were equipped. Their descendants to this day live in area Terneyski: Bulatovy , Kurilenko , Kukliny , Polyakovy , Labetskie , Derevniny , Chernakovy , Gavriny , Corokony , Gorbunovy , Golenkovy .
In September, 1908 the first house warming in a five-wall log hut where Grigory Andreevicha Yeliseyev's numerous family has got over has been celebrated. Therefore it is considered to be September, 1908 official birthday of Terney .
But not all began to lodge in Terney , the some people at once left on the south or the north, chose a place on a residence there. Some families have located at lake of Good fortune (nowadays Fertile), others, on the contrary, went on the north, in convenient places put log huts. So the village Russian was formed. The third left in depth of a taiga, far away from the sea. For example, families Derevninyh, Chernakovyh send away kilometers for 15 upwards on Serebryanka river and have stopped at a small rivulet. The village began to refer to Chernakovka .
In 1910 Terney people of other warehouse, not distant immigrants, and mainly from Vladivostok , Никольск -Ussuriisk began to arrive. It were " grated kalaches ", skilled on trade in opium, resale of a ginseng, horns of deers, furs. But to lodge near to poor people they did not become, have chosen to itself a place on left I protect Serebrjanki.
The first bench has opened m erchant Otrashkevich . In a bench - kerosene, soap, matches, tobacco, spirit, sugar, salt... But the prices... God forbid! The merchant was compliant. There is no money? Take in a duty. You will give sables. And all talk . And in some years all village at it was in irredeemable to a duty. The merchant has put mini-factory of oil, and then and a watermill.
The basic employment of inhabitants was hunting, fishing, and a little bit later timber cutting. All had kitchen gardens, necessarily sowed grain: a rye, wheat, barley, millet, an oats.
Administratively Terney concerned to area Olginskomu. But, as those, authorities were not. All questions were solved "world", on assemblies . However, such "self-management" not too was pleasant, especially to clergy. It has been concerned by that on village there is no church. Muzhiks and women go with non-christian foreheads, are not professed, children who have born on a new place not christened. Old residents told, that at that time were such protoirey the Vladivostok church, Grigmunt and when inhabitants have wanted to construct church, Grigmunt has told, that endows on construction of a temple of 50 roubles, and for it that have named village its name - Grigmuntovkoi .
Inhabitant Terney E.A.Suvorov, the full member of Russian geographical society, has lifted archives and has found out, that actually there was such village Grigmuntovka. It settled down in the neighbourhood with existed village Terney. In census of the occupied and inhabited places of Seaside area for 1915 it was specified, that in Grigmuntovke lived 169 person. It was possible to find to it and a card " переселенческого site Terney ", drawn by land surveyor Nazarenko in 1911 On it Grigmuntovka it is designated near to mouth Sankhobe (nowadays Serebryanka ), on right I protect, on left - village Terney.
And the member of the Most holy Synod really participated in construction of church protoirei , only not Vladivostok , but Moscow , very well-known father John Vostorgov across Russia . One of Far East newspapers per 1909 has written: " the Society of new settlers on coast of Pacific ocean has decided to name the settlement Grigmuntovskim. It not only has no orthodox temple, but also is far from church... protoirei Delights has addressed with the appeal to muscovites on a construction of a temple which people of Grigmuntovka have decided to name in memory over prince Vladimir... On external conditions the settlement Grigmuntovskoe promises to be populous. Besides in edges of the Far East , this advanced post of Russian nation in Asia , we should care especially about help in the population of strong Russian spirit".
It is not known, who had an idea to name village Grigmuntovka. More likely, at the father Vostorgova, the nearest associate Grigmunta on political activity. In general, have named seaside small village in memory of the public Russian figure, the editor of the known newspaper in Russia " the Moscow sheets " Vladimir Andreevicha Grigmunta. The Russian press (and in particular " the Moscow sheets ") has called to offer means for construction of a temple. Time, small. The church-school in village has been constructed of a cedar. Construction the big temple it. prince Vladimir was prevented with the first world war.
War always rushes into a life of a society suddenly though people and feel its approach. In far, deaf, half-starved Terney it is not known what ways this message has reached in the winter of 1914, and have taken away the first recruits in the spring. Took away without a medical board young, single or family, but not in time yet to get children of peasants. The quantity of hands was reduced, and after the second and third appeal of muzhiks almost does not remain, except for, sons of merchant Puharev.
And snow the winter of 1914 was very severe. In a taiga the animal perished deers, the case of livestock has begun. And the summer has not pleased. In August there was a strong flooding, has washed off fields, has carried away many log huts, there were victims, the cattle was lost.
The low standard of life of peasants has worsened and without that. Steamships did not come almost. Especially on spring children often died. The first expanded of Terney a cemetery, hardly far away a present fire brigade. Pleased rare, very rare letters the soldier, they were event for all village, to them have read up to holes, on some times women went to day to clerk Poljakovu and asked it to read through aloud. And war, appear, there will be no end.
The First message that king Nikolai have thrown off, inspired pleasure poor people, and at the beginning all. In Kkhutsin , the Dzhigit, in Great Kema - everywhere where conservatives dominated, people till some days did not leave to work, did not clean cattle, rolled out cut out from a tree flanks and wooden mugs with wine and treated each other, had fun, and then broke imperial portraits, long whip adhered them to horse tails and drove on rural streets .
February revolution has come to pass. About October revolution of Russia people Terney have learned not at once. Come from front Ignaty Labetski , Ivan Kuklin, Artem and Maxim Kurilenko and a little others became initiators of creation of the first Advice of working, soldier's and country deputies in Terney in February, 1918. Then the decision to rename Grigmuntovka in Morozovka , in honour of revolutionary Morozova was accepted. The Village Soviet began to refer to Terney - M orozovka .
In March of the same year in Terney there has arrived the representative of a staff of guerrilla groups Arhipov. It has created guerrilla group which has been named " Northern flying " . 42 persons have entered Into it. The commander of group had been selected Artem Kurilenko , by the commissioner - Nikita Serkov.
Four years the group operated. They reflected an impact of White Guards in most Terney twice, have crushed gang Stepanov in Samarga . Operations were conducted in area Tetjuhe (Dalnegorsk), in Vladimiro -Monomakhove, in Ippolitovke . Have blown up of Kolcahk an armored train. Under station Ippolitovka the commander of group Artem Kurilenko was lost. Command of group has been assigned to Jacob Kuklin. And again the group conducts fight in area Jakovlevki, Anuchino , Shkotovo . Last fight conducted group in 1922, it together with people of Tetukhe reflected attempt of landing of a White Guard landing in a bay of lake Fertile . In honour of Artem Kurilenko the village Artyomovo (Gavrino ) is named. The street Ivanovo in item Terney is named in honour of Ivan Ivanov, its wounded man have dumped from a steamship in the sea. There was on left Alexey Tcherkasov's street Ternee - the first Soviet teacher in Terney . It was lost near Ussuriisk. In investigation, being the wounded man, it has been seized by Japanese. The commissioner of group Nikita Serkov was lost in the river Serebrjanka in Terney , has not had time to leave from a bullet. Were lost Arhipov, Burmistrov , Golenkov - only 16 person.
After the termination of civil war people of Terney lived, as a matter of fact, the same as and before revolution. Were engaged processing of fields, hunting, fishing, especially it began to develop since 1924 when there were mass congestions at coast of area. In May, 1932 decision Dalkraiispolrom ( Far East regional executive committee) from a southern part of area Sovgavanskogo has been allocated area Terneyski with the center in item Terney- морозовское (initial name Terney has found with formation of Primorye Territory ). For years of the existence the area has gone through many social and natural cataclysms (typhoons).
Begun collectivization, that have cut bases of a life, have brought turmoil, split of a society, all way of a rural life has been torn down. Any discounts for specific features of area, its remoteness, severity of a climate, scarcity and small fertility of the grounds nobody did. The main thing was - more likely and to tire out people in collective farms more. Everyone, even the smallest village , should become collective-farm. In 1932 1933 years in our area 10 fishing collective farms have been created, and almost each of them had farm branch with a full set of useful cultures, animal industries. For the same term it has been created cleanly agricultural 22 collective farms, with an average arable wedge of 160 hectares. Collective farms-dwarfs were created in such villages as Kuruma , Koembe , Chernakovka , Tavaiza and many other things, families totaled till 10-15, besides not had arable lands, except for kitchen gardens.
Collectivization in such villages passed under the uniform scheme: there came один -two representatives, with them the armed group the soldier-frontier guards - "shooters " as them then named. Drave muzhiks in a greater log hut and " explained a line of a party ", what beautiful and their easy life waits, if they will enter collective farm, will unite the facilities in uniform. Individual processing with the requirement to sign the application for the voluntary introduction into collective farm was then conducted. Agreed, signed. And as you will not sign, when before a nose the barrel of a revolver dances. But were also obstinate, not frightened threats and the weapon. Them together with house belongings loaded on carts and sent on Kavasaki in Terney , and therefrom by a steamship to Vladivostok . Then learned, that they are banished to Kolyma . With the some people acted easier": selected the ground, cattle, stock and released.
Abusing authority, violence, Mockeries should cause response in the environment of peasants, especially those who differed diligence, was able to manage, so also veins the richman of others. Them also have christened fists. They first of all, and behind them peasants dissatisfied with collectivization send to active armed revolt. The authority has answered with terror. Peasants of Kkhutsin in 1932-1933 have answered it with armed revolt. Peasants in Dzhigitovka river to a valley Have taken up arms also. It was restless and in Samarga . Revolt in Kkhutsin or as it have named "Fist of old belief mutiny", has been suppressed by the most severe image. Last fight, has occured in up of Kkhutsin are seized. Surrounded by numerous group of frontier guards rebels did not resist also them, almost in an emphasis, shot. The remained handful alive has been sent to Vladivostok and there killed . Hearings went, that the some people shot and threw for a board on a way to city.
After suppression of revolt employees of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, yes so have worked, that practically does not remain anybody from relatives or good friends, friends to participants of revolt in Kkhutsin and sympathized to them people of Dzhigitivka and Samarga . It was tactics of intimidation to break at people will to resistance. The purpose has been reached, collectivization has passed quickly and successfully has come to the end by 1934. But driven in collective farms worked so, that in a year-other of a facilities have started to collapse, them remains ten.
In Terney in 1932 collective farm " Voice of the fisherman " has been created. The basic structure of its economy - extraction by networks Ivasi , a herring. Technics - sailing barges, and only with 1934 began to appear small fishing motor little crafts of type "Kavasaki " (under the name of the Japanese firm). In collective farm there was an agricultural branch on the basis of which the collective farm " on March, 8th " subsequently has been created. Fishermen-collective farmers, having finished, left in a taiga on a craft or went on timber cuttings. At the same time the richest organization which has stretched wood industrial facilities from the Dzhigit up to Samarga will be organized леспромхоз , entered in system " Дальлес ", on those times. This organization built apartment houses, wood factories and other industrial objects.
Sharp jump in development of economy has given North-seaside state fish trust. On its means have been constructed: hospital , the high school, regional library, edition (in 1934 the regional newspaper " Udarnik Terneya " has started to leave), and also a plenty of 3-4 condominiums, were under construction piers, bases for a pickles of a fish, motor-fishing station.
In 1934 translation of broadcasts, in the beginning Khabarovsk , and then from Vladivostok and Moscow has begun. There was a first film projector "twisted" silent movies.
In 1935 K.G.Abramova, J.A.Salmina's efforts, other scientists, local enthusiasts has been created Sikhote-Alin biospheric national reserve.
It would Seem, the life has started to be adjusted, the mood at people has improved. But reprisals proceeded. The second stage of struggle against " enemies of people " has begun. The Same muzhiks-trailblazers, then and a hump the developed these grounds which were much with the weapon in hands protected it, suddenly became enemies of the Soviet authority. The senior generation well remembers that time. And as you will forget. From memoirs Arhip Evstafievich Derevnin . That was created then in 37-39 years in area, has turned in consciousness Derevnina all upside down. It floated the mechanic on a boat "Terney " when people of NKVD have begun to clear villages and settlements of area of " enemies of people " whom the extreme number has suddenly appeared, in hold " Тернея " filled up to ninety person. So cattle in a shelter during a buran do not exhaust, as them filled in our hold, - recollects Arhip Evstafievich . - Exhausted kicks, butts, young, old men... The Some people hardly on legs kept from b ruises ... And that was created on coast. All village has run together - women, children, old women, in a voice shout, are torn to the, people of NKVD them fling away, roughly swear, stick of revolvers...
There were also other boats carried arrested persons. And once, it was in May 38 years, in Terney has come six boats, overflown by arrested persons. People of NKVD have arranged a uniform round-up of " enemies of people ". The chief of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs Rebrov and its assistant Garshtejn supervised over operation. People sufficed in all villages and carried in Terney . The person five hundred at once have brought, as herd drove to militia... About Astakhov, Baburin , Garshtein, Rebrov, Netesov , Nikolaev during same times on Terney gloomy hearings went. It was then uniform " зондер -command".
Those who has passed interrogations in then militia, with horror recollect them. To force to give muzhiks the necessary indications (espionage in favour of Japan, preparation of counter-revolutionary insurrection, diversion, damage of a fish in saltly shops, deliberate breakage of technics, murder of party and Soviet active workers), to break their will, starved, did not allow to drink, sleep and beat, beat, beat...
Not all broke, were also such which stood on the, up to the end. In them hammered to death. Buried secretly, at night. Perhaps, it their remains then washed away rains, and people were frightened, finding in thrickets remains of skeletons.
So Efim Kurilenko, the younger brother of Artem Kurilenko , the commander the guerrilla was lost. To it "have sewn" anti-soviet activity in Terney . Probably, Garshtein had intention to destroy all the guerrilla of Terney . It had for this purpose reasons. It searched an occasion to arrest the most active fighters " Northern flying " - Phillip Bulatova, Peter Rogotovskogo, Jacob Kuklin, Evstafiy Derevnin , Grigory Kurilenko. Business on them already fabricated, yes were not in time - Garshtein itself have been arrested as the enemy of people and sent in the Vladivostok prisons where it speak, brutally killed people of Terney which it tortured. Garshtein it has appeared the White Guard officer and to history " Northern flying " had the direct attitude. During attempt to land at lake Fertile guerrillas have taken a White Guard landing in a captivity of the young officer. The left cheekbone at it was s car a bullet. It was treated by Anna Ivanovna Filimonova. Having cured the officer, guerrillas have sent it to Vladivostok . And in 1937 in Terney there was a new chief of militia Garshtejn. It was harmonous, swarty, with a beard. More than two years held Garshtein Terney in fear and many troubles if it has not learned Filimonova would do... The beard has not rescueed Garshtein, it has appeared that officer whom it left. Terney exulted, when this executioner took away on a steamship.
But with arrest Garshtein arrests have not stopped. Was to write to People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs a denunciation enough, and the person has been doomed. "Knocked" on those to whom envied on whom had "tooth", paid off old scores, revenged for insults. It is difficult to believe in it, but all were afraid each other. Anybody trusted nobody, even it was dangerous to relatives to trust. Vladimir Zhilkin worked for us in a district executive committee. Clever was, cultural. Once speaks me: " you Know, Arhip , I have arrested the father and have delivered in Terney ". It appears, Zhilkina Rebrov has sent in Maksimovka to arrest the father, as the enemy of people: say, you the communist also should execute. And Zhilkin has gone. " Forgive me, father , but I have arrived to arrest you. Gather, we shall go ", - tells and cries.
About many fellow countrymen who have suffered those terrible years, told still Arhip Evstafievich . Why many people did not show resistance? Why have allowed to mock at itself? Really they so were paralysed with fear? People were not only are frightened, everyone have been brought down from mind. Nobody understood, that occurs. Everyone hoped, that there was a mistake, will understand and will release. Parties, the Soviet authority trusted, here in what there was a trouble. And Praskoviya Maksomovna , wife Arhipa Evstafevicha, has added: Even those who came back from camps, the Soviet authority did not abuse. Stalin, Yezhov, Beria swore, and the Soviet authority never. That people the belief in it was.
Today spouses Derevninykh already are not present in alive, (the memoirs which have been written down from their words of V.P.Baranovym, are stored in library of item Terney ), not present in alive those who has passed camp. But their children and grandsons who remember sufferings and flours, executioners and victims of those bloody and terrible years are alive.
In 1936-1937 20 % of the population of area made people of Korea . They lived mainly not in Russian settlements, and separate settlements, in fanzes on valleys of the rivers and in small bays on seacoast. But on September, 30th, 1937 , the urgent dispatch has acted: " To transfer on direct wire ВЧ of 750 words. In three addresses: to first secretary RK VKP (Chairman RIK , , the chief People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs ".
The essence of this classified document was reduced to the following: immediately to start and to collect till October, 23rd, 1937 all citizens of the Korean nationality, to ship on steam-ships and to send to Vladivostok , therefrom they went to Kazakhstan . People of Korea own property was authorized, habitation, cattle, a crop to sell. With itself it was authorized to take only personal things.
And it has been made. The task has been executed precisely in time. According to report VKP () on a steamship "Hen" 1394 persons, on a steamship " Vsevolod Sibirtsev " - 1367 person are shipped and sent.
It is difficult to present now as spent this "work", and it was not from simple: to collect from huge territory, on impassability, without transport, in so short terms, such quantity of people as among moved there were chest children, pregnant women, the old men sick. Koreian people have collected so, that any have not passed, have not forgotten, have not left. Certainly, k oreian people had not time to sell the dwellings, property, cattle, a crop and to whom you will sell when villages remained empty. The area has lost 20 % of the Korean population, besides, there leaved families subjected to repression, tried to disappear, be dissolved in human weight of densety populated places.
After earthquake of 1938 the sardine has sharply gone on a loss ivasi . And to the beginning of its war almost did not trade. And again outflow of the population. Prospering fish factories began to decay earlier, began to grow poor and to grow poor fishing collective farms. And here war1941.
The first mobilization was numerous. Left on front and voluntary. Is not present such one of people Terney which war would not concern. Men were at the front, in village there were basically women and children. Worked on an alloy of a wood, on seines in the sea, in stables and dairy farms, behind a plough.
In the beginning 50 rise of economy of area has begun. But it does not mean, that in area at once it became easier. But it does not mean, that at once it became easier. The economy was n ot effective , sickly. The enterprises closed, collective farms liquidated, roads not was, all was delivered by the sea.
In 1952 there was an event which became defining in a life of settlement. Medkov Anatoly Alekseevich, working as the secretary of a district committee of Komsomol, has written the letter to the first secretary THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU - to Malenkov, that the fishing industry collapses, people leave villages, the boundary area is threatened with desolation. The answer that measures are taken for the further development has soon come. Immigrants have been directed, supply has improved.
In the beginning of 60th years shift in economy has begun. Were incorporated in three fishing collective farms in one - "Ogni"(Fires). On the basis of fine unprofitable collective farms one is created. Feeding with/ з with four branches, it is created state industrial facilities "Terneyski ".
In 1961 Medkov A. is appointed chairman of a district executive committee. Approximately at this time Terney began to get present shape. Have asphalted streets, construction of welfare value has begun: hospitals, clubs, schools, hotels (today here it is located by cafe " Surf " and tax inspection), housing construction.
With 1971 on 1978 years Construction of road Terney - Plastoon . The area has received a ground output in the next area Dalnegorsky and in the regional center - Vladivostok .
Last years the economy of area marks time. By diligent artel " East " there is begun development of deposits of silver. Minerals mainly precious metals are reconnoitered.
Falling of manufacture has not passed by also. The feeding state farm was closed, two branches in the form of company have escaped, collective farm " Fires " was closed. The message in area has sharply worsened.
For all this time one generation was replaced not, people of various trades have left the trace in development of settlement.
Owing to a finding in our territory of Sikhote-Alin biospheric reserve, foreign tourists have the big interest to us.
Not few problems face to settlement, its administrations. History of Terney , certainly, does not keep within the short review, it proceeds, and on each of us depends, what will be our settlement in tomorrow.
The Used literature
1. V.K.Arsenyev to edge. - Leningrad. : Lenizdat . - 1978.
2. Vladimir Klavdievich Arsenyev: the bibliography in photos, memoirs of friends, certificates эпохи /the Author- сост . J.Luganskij.-Vladivostok: Ussuri, 1997. - 334 с .: silt., a photo.
3. Clerks of Century From time immemorial // Bulletin of Terney . - 1975. - on March, 13th.
4. Kuklin M.A.gloomy autumn 37- го . // Bulletin of Terney . - 1993. - on August, 24th.
5. Kuklin M.A.Terneyu - 62 // Bulletin of Terney . - 2000. - on September, 29th.
6. Suvorov E.A.riddle gulf of Terney // the Note of a society of studying of the Amur edge. XXXII. - Vladivostok , 1998.
7. Tatarnikov Century Expedition in Amgu // Bulletin of Terney . - 1981. - on January, 8th.
Data on authors
1. Clerks - the chief of North Sea group of sector of archeology of a primitive society of institute of history, archeology and ethnography of people of Far East DVNC AN the USSR.
2. Kuklin M.A. - the editor-in-chief of the newspaper " Bulletin of Terney ", nephew Jacob Kuklin.
3. Suvorov E.A. - the full member of Russian geographical society.
4. Tatarnikov - chairman Dalnegorskogo of branch of the Geographical society.
The composer: O.Golosnaja, methodologist CLC
THE RIDDLE OF BAY TERNEY
Evgenie Suvorov, the full member of Russian geographical society.
In last edition of the Big Soviet Encyclopedia, in clause about the well-known seaside reserve Sihote-Alinskom the photo of a small bay on coast of sea of Japan accompanies. Why by way of illustration to the description well-known overland reserves the nature composers have chosen this photo? Most likely, casually. But, strangely enough, the bay in a photo is connected with one geographical opening the end of XVIII century is a component of gulf Terney . What else from geographical objects of Primorski Krai has such most interesting and at the same time confused history of opening, as the bay which has carried by name Terney without changes more than in two centuries!
As a matter of fact, as K.Arsenyev has noticed in 1912 of Century , such bay is not present. It only " an insignificant deepening " in a coastal line, its "roughness". On large-scale charts it is absolutely imperceptible. But attracts attention not only that Terney the bay or a gulf can be named only conditionally. The most important in other: present bay Terney is located not there where it is designated on the modern hag. But then where?.. In a youth, in 60th years, on the first journalistic business trip in area Terneyski I with surprise have paid attention, that regional center Terney is located on coast of the large mountain river Sanhobe (Serebryanka river) which runs into a mouth of a bay. Strange, whence such greater river here has undertaken? Studying in library of a local Geographical society history of this region, I have made extracts of Michael Ivanovicha Venjukova's book (Travel on surburbs of Russian Asia and a note about them), published in 1868. The author results set of data from history of navigation along coast of Primorski Krai of the French researcher Laperuza. Is there and descriptions of gulf Terney . From them it is possible to draw a conclusion, that at Laperuz and the hint was not on any large river running into bay Terney . Small rivers, keys in it records referred to. One of streams for such short geological period could not turn in deep, with a wide mouth the river, as river Sanhobe (Serebryanka river) . As for two hundred years of any cataclysms in local district it was not observed. Or Venukov it is inexact has translated the French traveller, or the gulf pressed in a land " not in that place ".
I have decided to find out secret of gulf Terney . I managed to get a photocopy of the third, "Far East" volume " Round-the-world travel Laperuz to continuation 1785, 1786, 1787 and 1788 ", published in Paris the decision of National assembly " due to the nation " in 1798, that is later 10 years after disappearance of the ships of the well-known seafarer. Now I knew: Brooms was exact in translation Laperuz . From this follows, that the Frenchmen in 1787 did not land on coast of modern bay Terney . Close outlines of a "official" gulf did not coincide with descriptions in the book even. Besides each of gulfs had the coordinates though the difference was small. By then I have got over in Terney , have bypassed on foot almost all coast of area, tens times flied above a coastal line. At me the confidence that "Laperuz " the gulf is a little to the north of existing grew. However put last point in the decision of a riddle cards of the French seafarer could only.
It is known, that expedition Laperuz day after day conducted shootings and the description of coastal lines by which the ships followed. Publishers often referred to numbers of cards which Laperuz has managed to transfer up to the destruction using a convenient opportunity to Paris . Them then have united in "Atlas", in it gulf Terney appeared under N 43. Now business was absolutely for small - to find this "Atlas", to copy cards of a gulf "Atlas", it was represented to me, is precisely in France , in Paris , in the Academy of sciences. So, it is necessary to direct bridges... And suddenly - absolutely unexpected luck: in local press passed the message on that, on "Atlas" Laperuz is absolutely beside... In Khabarovsk ! Soon, owing to friends-scientists, I have received copies of all necessary cards. And then and itself has visited Khabarovsk , with excitement thumbed through pages of the old edition. My assumptions about a site "Laperuz ова " gulf Terney were completely justified, and now I could publish results of long-term searches. Except for M. And Venukova , an episode with opening gulf Terney from book of Laperuz , result Zhul Vern in " History of great travel " and the descendant of the friend and assistant Laperuza to the captain de Langlya in the documentary story " Tragical travel... ", Published in France . Having the primary source, not superfluous will remind of opening gulf Terney especially supported by cartographical data. Without the small 250 person have gone from coast of France by two ships to the well-known round-the-world voyage. In 1785 44-years Jean-Francois Galo de Laperuz was known on the native land as successful seaman, the brave militarian and is simple as the fair person. Not without reason more than hundred officers asked to go to flight with Laperuz . The selected nanometers possessed " excellent advantages " In structure of expedition of Laperuz many researchers for "identification" of many unknown then still coast of the ground, for the description of plants, animal, breathing fire mountains, and the main thing, for studying various people have entered. It is possible to tell, that by 42-gun frigates "Astrolabe" and "Surveying compass" color of the French science of that time has gathered. So, de Lamanonu, to a member of the Turin academy, the correspondent of the Royal academy of sciences of France , " entrusted was to practise in travel in connection with natural history concerning to actually globe and its atmosphere ". Being expressed by the modern language, the academician should be engaged in mineralogy and meteorology. To abbey Monte, the publisher of physical magazine, " it has been appointed, except for discharge of duties of the priest, consideration of minerals and all physical researches ". The doctor of medicine de pa Martiner has been sent as botany, and in the help the gardener of the Royal garden has been given to it Kollinon. Misters Prevo, the uncle and the nephew, have gone to draw everything, that " belonged to natural history ". In the June, 1787, later two years after departure from France, "Astrolabe" and "Surveying compass" at a fine fair wind have crossed sea of Japan from the south from island Jesso (nowadays Hokkaido) on northwest, to coast so-called Tatarii . So unknown territories in the north and northeast of Asia were designated on cards of that time and later all. The word in translation from Latin and today means it hell, edge of light. Later years one letter in words Tatariya , tataryes - that is " the people living on edge of light ", - has dropped out, it has disappeared and on cards, but there was Tatar strait... By a rate drawn on a card, the Frenchmen for the first time have come nearer to coast of Primorski Krai in area of bay Pphusung where the settlement the Seaman-fisher today is located. From here Laperuz has directed the ships to Sakhalin , on northeast, along coast. The existing version according to which a bay which has been named by Russian seamen Sacred Olga's name, Laperuz has opened and has described during the same time, any documentary data does not prove to be true. Frequent dense fogs did not allow the Frenchmen to approach more close to coast, to find long-awaited parking in any bay. At last weather began to favour to travellers, and Laperuz has directed the ships to an extensive gulf. " In 6 one o'clock in the evening, - described Laperuz, - we have thrown an anchor in this gulf on depth of 24 sea sazhens (50, on distance of half lie (2,2 km) from coast ". Laperuz has named having filled in with name Terney . " Five bays , together taken, were similar to the parties of a correct polygon and formed the general contour of a gulf ".
I as experiment have shown a card of bay Terney from "Atlas" to the familiar navigator well known local coast. It, hardly having looked at it, has agreed with me: it was gulf "Tavaiza" , or "Russian" as it have renamed per 1972 located in 15-20 km to the north on coast from bay Terney . I have put a copy from the card drawn more two hundred years ago near to a modern card of gulf Tavaiza , same large-scale, and outlines of all of five bays gulf Terney have appeared similar. First bay Laperuz has named a bay of Deers . Its modern photo just will a case also has got in the Greater Soviet Encyclopedia. During Soviet time this gulf , as well as a rivulet running into it, Representatives have got the name.
Still with anchor in a gulf itself Laperuz , officers and its scientific expeditions have considered in telescopes herd of deers, and a number, more to the right, on coast another bay - family of bears. The kind of wild animals has excited the hunting passions at seamen, and they with such eagerness began to prepare for fire-arms as if they should fight with the enemy. Has carried to a command of hunters, whose boat has directed to coast with deers. The Frenchmen have hit three deers . To other seamen who have directed the boat to coast of other bay, named bears , it was necessary to observe only how after the first shots, appeared inexact, animals have disappeared in a wood. And here in fishing to the Frenchmen carried much more. Hardly anchors of frigates have concerned a bottom of a gulf, seamen have immediately undertaken fishing tackles. And in some minutes have pulled out on a deck from dozen large cods, than everyone have been pleasantly amazed. Laperuz has there and then allowed a command " to close access to corned beef " and to pass to a feed by a fresh fish. Caught a cod, a trout, a herring, a flounder, salmons.
The general impression from the seen nature, from vegetation has caused at Laperuz and its satellites admiration. Whether has met Laperuz local residents? In those some days when the Frenchmen have passed by coast Tartarii to Terney , they have never noticed, a uniform spark, any boat with people. And still it was not trusted, that the local ground is uninhabited. Here and on coast of gulf Terney the Frenchmen have not met any alive soul though continually they met traces of stay of people. All this gave the basis to believe, has drawn conclusion Laperuz, that "tatars " come to seacoast to seasons of fishing and hunting. Basically natives, probably, live in depth of continent where the ground more approaches for employment by cattle breeding It is possible to assume, that natives, in turn, observed of newcomers, nothing the maximum of the presence.
In the morning on July, 9th, 1787 the Frenchmen, having buried on coast of one of bays of a gulf a vessel with metal plates on which names of the ships have been engraved, time of parking in a gulf, have lifted sails and have continued a way to Sakhalin. Command Laperuz has once again visited on coast of present Primorski Krai the same area, frigates have thrown in couple of days of an anchor opposite to the river Adimi renamed presently by experts on toponymics in the river Yellow. Here again to the Frenchmen has not carried on a meeting with tatars . On absolutely fresh traces left by natives, it was possible to judge, that people have just escaped in depth of a wood Reports of the officer and the naturalist who has visited on coast, have not excited at Laperuz any desire to continue stay in a bay which have named gulf Suffren .
In searches of Laperuz gulf Terney I, appear, was not lonely. The French geographer from New Caledonia Jean Gukllou has done all way of expedition Laperuz in 1785-1788. It has visited and Primorski Krai with the full member of the Geographical society from Khabarovsk Grigory Merkinym. I before their arrival have published in the regional newspaper " the Red banner " a material about gulf Terney . And as it was pleasant to learn, that the French scientist-geographer and its Russian colleague, having studied cards, publications, have recognized correct the conclusions made by E.Suvorovym about true position of gulf Terney . About it visitors have left record in French and Russian languages in the book of guests of honour of Seaside branch of Russian geographical society (OIAK ). The riddle where first time Laperuz on coast Tartarii - Primorski Krai actually landed, has been solved. But who has set it? How gulf Terney was displaced a little on the south?
In 1874 expedition of lieutenant colonel L.A.Bolsheva has closed topographical shooting the last " a white spot " on a card of northeast coast of sea of Japan and Tatar strait - between gulfs Plastoon and Де -Castries (Chikhacheva ). Topographers were guided on the cards created not without mistakes by the West-European experts. On these cards we can meet doubts in reliability of outlines of a coastal line even at I.Venjukova's M. Concerning, for example, coasts of sea of Japan, it wrote: " even bays Terney and Suffren which description and astronomical coordinates are in reports Laperuz , are noted on these cards by names, and hardly learn these bays in two small gulfs, and that not likely ".
L.A.Bolsheva's expedition as informed in 1886 " News of the Imperial Russian geographical society ", " has not found mentioned Laperuz gulf Suffren , but has found bay Terney ".
To find has found, but to the south a gulf of Laperuz , in a mouth of the river Sanhobe (Serebryanka river).
To us, people of Primorski kray , Laperuz and its comrades on last travel, victims in Pacific ocean from " love to sciences ", are close as the pioneers who have stepped into our coast.